PVC pipes and fittings are common within plumbing and electrical systems. PVC pipes come in different grades, colors and sizes to suit a wide range of applications. Among the different types of PVC fittings, black pipe cross fitting are useful in connecting pipes that meet at 90-degree angles.
What Are Black Pipe Cross Fittings?
Black pipe cross fittings, also known as cross joints, connect two pipes at right angles. They come in multiple configurations for joining 1⁄2-inch to 2-inch black pipe. The fittings may be either moulded or solvent weld. Some popular types of black pipe cross fittings include:
- T-Fittings: These connect three pipes at right angles to form a “T” shape. They have a single inlet and two outlets. T-fittings join two pipelines to a main pipeline.
- Elbow Fittings: Also called 90-degree bend fittings, elbow fittings connect two pipes that meet at 90-degree angles. They have a single inlet and outlet port.
- Cross Fittings: These fittings connect two pipes intersecting at 90 degrees. They resemble an “X” shape. Cross fittings have two inlet and two outlet ports at right angles.
- Cross Tees: Similar to T-fittings, cross tees connect three pipes meeting at right angles. However, they have two inlet ports and a single outlet port.
The Basic Components Of Black Pipe Cross Fittings
All black pipe cross fittings share some basic components:
- Socket: The opening that receives and holds the pipe end is called the socket. The socket is made wider than the pipe to ensure a tight grip.
- Hub: The area surrounding the socket is the hub. The hub provides extra strength to the fitting and distributes pressure to the socket walls.
- Straight Sections: The part of the fitting that connects the socket to the outlet has straight pipe sections.
- Outlet: The end of the fitting that receives the next pipe section in the pipeline is the outlet.
Applications Of Black Pipe Cross Fittings
Black pipe cross fittings have numerous applications within irrigation, plumbing, and electrical systems for:
- Connecting water supply lines – They are used to join hot and cold-water supply lines to the main distribution pipes. Cross fittings allow combining multiple water lines into common headers.
- Sewage connections – Black cross fittings join sections of sewer pipes running at right angles. They let sewer waste exit the house at perpendicular angles.
- Venting pipes – The fittings help connect vent pipes at various positions within the drainage system.
- Electrical conduit runs – Electricians employ the fittings to run perpendicular conduit runs for cable and wire routing.
- HVAC ducting – Black pipe cross fitting joins sheet metal ducts used in heating and cooling systems.
Black Pipe Cross Fitting Materials
Commonly used materials for manufacturing black pipe cross fittings include:
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – Being light and affordable, PVC is the most common material for black pipe fittings. However, it has limited heat resistance.
- Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) – This offers greater heat resistance over PVC and can withstand higher water pressures. But it costs more.
- Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) – ABS pipe fittings offer good insulation, corrosion resistance and durability. However, they cannot withstand extreme heat or cold.