To understand the basic knowledge of an **elbow**, the determination of an elbow must know the diameter, radius, and angle of the elbow, and some have a straight section. According to the angle, there are **45 degree pipe elbow**, 90 ° and 180 °, which are the most commonly used, and other abnormal angle bends, such as 60°, are also included according to the engineering needs. The angle of the elbow needs to be measured with a tool, and only 180 degrees, **90 degrees**, and 45 degrees can be seen.

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**90 fitting**

Formula for calculating the size of the elbow:

- 1. 5 times the center height of the elbow = path * 1.524, in fact, is the path * multiple, the number after the decimal point of the resulting result is round to the nearest integer, such as the path of 219 is 200. The center height is 200 ≤ 1.524 ≤ 304.8, take 305; if the path of 114 is 100, the center height is 100 ≤ 1.524 ≤ 152.4, take 152.

(suitable for DN100 and above elbow curvature radius algorithm for convenient and fast calculation). - Stamp height = center height + radius of elbow, such as 1.5 times diameter 219 elbow height = 305 x 219 ≤ 2 ≤ 305 ≤ 109.5 ≤ 414.5.
- The outer arc length = (center height + radius) * 3.14 ≤ 2 ≤ 360 * degrees, that is, (stamp height) * 3.14 ≤ 2 ≤ 360 * degrees, from which the outer arc length of 90 degree fitting elbow can be calculated = poke height * 3.14 × 2.
- Inner arc length = (center height-radius) * 3.14 ≤ 2 ≤ 360 * degrees.
- The blanking length of the elbow = the height of the center of the elbow * 3.14 ≤ 2 * the outer diameter of the elbow / pipe diameter + (pipe wall thickness * 3) + machining allowance, such as using 180 × 8 pipe blanking, pushing 273 elbow, the above formula can be calculated:

The blanking length is 381 ≤ 1.57 ≤ 273 / 180 / 24 / 931.22 mm + processing allowance.

## Calculation Formula for a 45-Degree Elbow in a Pipeline

- The calculation method for the short pipe in the middle of two 45 degree bends is as follows: short connection length = height difference x 1.4142 ≤ 0.8284R, R = bending radius of elbow (that is, the length of a 90 elbow fitting bending head).
- First of all, calculate the center height. Then the central length minus the height of the elbow on both sides is the short pipe length in the middle.

The elbow requires the radius of curvature to be controlled. For example, if the radius length is 1.5D, the curvature radius must be within the required tolerance range. Because most of these pipe fittings are used for welding, in order to improve the welding quality, the end of the car must be inserted into a groove, leaving a certain angle, with a certain edge. This requirement is also relatively strict, depending on how thick the edge is, how much angle and deviation range are specified, and the geometric of the pipe fittings.

**Formula for calculating center to end distance of such elbows is as follows:**

For standard degrees of pipe elbows such as 45° and 90°, elbow center to end dimensions are available in standard pipe charts. But many times, custom elbow angles are required at site which should be cut from standard 45° or 90° elbows.

**Elbow length in mm = Tan(Elbow Angle/2) X Elbow Radius in mm**

**Where:**

The center to end dimension for 90° Long Radius elbows, as listed in ASME B16.9 dimension tables, is equal to the elbow’s radius. Tan(90/2) i.e. Tan 45 is 1, which is why.

Typically, 90 degree standard elbows are used to cut custom elbow angles between 45 and 90 degrees. However, elbows with custom angles less than 45 degrees are typically cut from the 45 degree standard elbow. To find the elbow radius for a conventional 45-degree elbow, divide the center-to-end measurement given in the dimension tables by Tan (22.5). The elbow angle for custom degrees can then be obtained using the aforementioned formula.

**Same procedure applies to 3D elbows.**

**Technical specifications needed to make elbows:**

Controlling the radius of curvature is necessary. For instance, the radius of curvature needs to fall within the necessary tolerance if the radius is 1.5D. Since the majority of these fittings are used for welding, the ends are car-grooved to leave a specific angle and edge. This requirement is more stringent since the edge must be thick, the angle must be determined, and the deviation range must be observed. Certain provisions have far larger geometric measurements than fittings. The elbow’s mechanical characteristics and surface quality are essentially the same as those of the tubes. The pipe that needs to be joined has the same steel material for ease of welding.

For example, if the elbow dimensions are 10 inches by 90 degrees, the path D is 250 and the center height is 250 * 1.524 = 381. The algorithm for calculating the radius of curvature of DN100 and above is quick and simple to use.

1.1.5 times the center of the elbow height A = diameter * 1.524; in fact, the path diameter D * multiples. The decimal number of the result will be rounded to the nearest integer number.

2.Poke height is equal to the center height plus the elbow’s radius; for example, a 10-inch, 90-degree elbow with a 273-diameter would have 305+273/2=441.5 in Poke height.

3.The outer arc length of the 90 degree elbow can be computed as follows: stamp High *3.14/2. The outside arc length of the elbow is equal to (center height + radius) * 3.14 * 2/360 * degrees, or (poke height) * 3.14 * 2/360 * degrees.

4.(Central height – radius) * 3.14 * 2/360 * degrees is the length of the inner arc.

## The theoretical weight of the elbow

Weight of elbow = (outer diameter-wall thickness) * wall thickness * 0.02466 * length.

1) The outer diameter is not equal to the nominal diameter, equal to the outer diameter at the groove of series 2.

2) length = 2 π R * angle / 360, the calculated weight length of the elbow is the arc length corresponding to the angle of the elbow in the circumference of R as the radius.

3) R is the bending radius of the elbow.

**AUTHORS**：Jianzhi pipe fitting

Specialist Malleable Iron Fittings Manufacturer – Jianzhi pipe fittings